Whole Foods Plant-Based Diet Definition
- Consists of whole or minimally processed plants such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, seeds, nuts, and legumes. It tends to minimize or exclude animal-based products such as meat, dairy, eggs.
1. Weight loss
- Adventist Health Study -2 and EPIC-Oxford Study showed: highest weight in meat-eaters and lowest in vegans.
- Sweedish Mammography Cohort Study: Prevalence of obesity 40% in meat eaters and 25% in vegetarians.
- In a 2015 meta-analysis, vegetarian diets were associated with greater weight loss than omnivore diets.
2. Heart Disease and Hypertension
- The EPIC-Oxford study showed: vegans ate the most fiber; had the least total, and saturated fat intake; had the healthiest cholesterol compared with meat-eaters.
- Adventist Health Study-2 showed vegetarian with 13% reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and 19% reduced risk of ischemic heart disease.
- The EPIC-Oxford study showed vegetarians had a 32% lower risk of hospitalization or death from heart disease.
- The EPIC-Oxford study showed that vegans had the lowest blood pressure of all diet groups (vegans, vegetarians, pescatarians, omnivores).
- Adventist Health Study -2 showed that meat-eaters had 2x prevalence of diabetes than lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans
- Vegans were 62% less likely than vegetarians to develop diabetes
- Lacto-Ovo vegetarians were 38% less likely to develop diabetes
- 3 servings daily of whole grains daily had a 32% reduction in risk of diabetes
- 2 servings per week of walnuts associated with a 33% reduction in diabetes risk
- Vegan diets have a 35% lower risk of prostate cancer
- Vegetarians have 18% lower overall cancer incidence than nonvegetarians
- The EPIC trial showed a 25% reduction in risk of colorectal cancer with the highest fiber intake
- The relative risk of colorectal polyps 27% higher with 100 grams of red meat intake and 29% higher with 50 grams of processed meat intake.
- Key phytochemicals for cancer protection may be sulforaphane, ferulic acid, genistein, indole-3-carbinol, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, diallyl disulfide, resveratrol, lycopene, quercetin.
- Melina V, Craig W, Levin S. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116:1970-1980.
- Tonstad S, Butler T, Yan R, Fraser GE. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(5):791-796.
- Newby PK, Tucker KL, Wolk A. Risk of overweight and obesity among semivegetarian, lactovegetarian, and vegan women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(6): 1267-1274.
- Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ. Diet and bodymass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters vegetarians and vegans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(6):728-734.
- Tonstad S, Stewart K, Oda K, Batech M, Herring RP, Fraser GE. Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23(4):292-299.
- Aune D, Norat T, Romundstad P, Vatten LJ. Whole grain and refined grain consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and dose response. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013;28(11): 845-858
- Tantamango-Bartley Y, Knutsen SF, Knutsen R, et al. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer? Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(1):153-160.
- Huang T, Yang B, Zheng J, Li G, Wahlqvist ML, Li D. Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60(4):233-240.
- Zhang Y, Gan R, Li S, et al. Antioxidant phytochemicals for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Molecules. 2015;20(12):21138-21156.